What Greta Gerwig Did Right: Rethinking Amy March in the Light of May Alcott Nieriker (2023)

AMY MARCH IS THE ONE most modern readers tend to hate - the most original, most self-absorbed, most indulgent girl in the group of sisters whose exploits are chronicled in Louisa May Alcott's classic novellittle woman(1868). Some readers may even sympathize with Carmen Maria Machado, who recentlywrotethat she thinks Jo should have let Amy drown. But the tide could be turning for the youngest March sister. Greta Gerwig's 2019 film adaptationlittle woman, fueled by an Oscar-nominated performance by Florence Pugh, Amy reimagined and in theWordsby Kate Erbland, "made the brat the film's breakout heroine."

In the months since the film's release, reviewers have had bothsupportsandrejectedErbland's claim. But there seems to be a "moment" for Amy March, one that encourages fans to reconsider this youngest sister, as Gerwig did herself as she prepared to write the screenplay. "Actually, one of my experiences reading the book was reliving Amy as a profound character who is Jo's equal, and someone who in some ways is a worthy opponent of Jo," says Gerwighas said. "It seems so obvious to me that she hasn't been given her due in our collective consciousness." And Gerwig isn't the only one who has looked it uplittle woman. Romanautorin Jane Smiley, in anew collectionjustifiedThe March Sisters: On Life, Death and Little Women, argues that Amy is the most seductive character in the book: "Amy is the modern woman, the thoughtful feminist [...] and more in line with who we want to be today."

Gerwig and Smiley's reading is indeed supported by the historical record. The real Amy March - May Alcott Nieriker, Louisa's youngest sister - was anything but distant and demanding. In fact, she was a genuine feminist force, promoting transatlantic networks for independent travelers. This forgotten legacy of May Alcott Nieriker lends credence to our new cultural attitude toward Amy, particularly our renewed sense of her ability to get things done in the face of concerted cultural opposition.

Both Gerwig and Smiley noticed certain comments made by Amy when rereading the novel. For Gerwig, it was "I'll be great, or I'll be nothing." For Smiley, it was a less obvious line: "I think fear is very interesting." In this remark, Smiley writes, Amy reveals that she is fundamentally a is an "introspective" character who tends to analyze her own feelings and find ways to learn from them. I would guess that Gerwig and Smiley probably didn't quite realize how correct their suspicions about this character are. Also, Amy isn't the first character inlittle womanbe reconsidered by sensitive readers.

In the most famous case of readers getting it right, Carroll Atwood Wilson, a rare book dealer specializing in the Alcotts, told Leona Rostenberg, friend and business partner of Madeleine Stern - author of a 1950 Alcott biography – that he was convinced “Louisa used a pseudonym to write sensational stories” and that she had to “discover the pseudonym”! Stern tells the story in her introduction to the 1996 reprint of her biography Es Rostenberg

found the answer in the manuscript room at Harvard's Houghton Library, where silence reigned as we both rummaged through the masses of Alcott manuscripts, letters, family papers, and memorabilia. Suddenly the silence was broken by a howl of war. Leona Rostenberg had found five letters from a Boston publisher to "Dear Miss Alcott" - letters that would change the childhood friend's image forever.

Rostenberg had found evidence that Louisa May Alcott had a number of contracts under the name of A. M. Barnard, a fact faithfully presented in Gerwigslittle woman.

Over 70 years later I had the opportunity to look through the papers myself at the same Houghton archives. In a box marked as Louisa's Papers, I found a small red diary that belonged to her sister May. As many know, May became a painter in Europe, her work being exhibited at the Paris Salon in the late 1870s. Living in London, Rome and Paris, she perfected her craft and visited museums, bought cheap dresses in the off-season and cried alone in a chapel when her beloved mother died. Eventually, in her late 30s, she married and gave birth to a daughter, whom she named Louisa after her older sister. After May's death, young Louisa (called Lulu) came across the sea to be raised by her eponymous aunt until Alcott's death in 1888.

This is less well known, however: in the final years of her short life, May became a staunch advocate for women studying abroad. She threw her public influence behind the cause, first in articles forDas Boston-Transcript(the most widely circulated daily newspaper in Boston at the time) and later in a book written and marketed for young women of limited means who wanted an artistic adventure. There may be reasons why this story has been forgotten. The only biography of May, a "Memoir" written by Caroline Ticknor and published in 1928, devotes less than 10 of its 300 pages to her public writings, which Ticknor said were not important to the practicing artist. In fact, Ticknor doesn't even bother to add the title of what she calls "May's Little Book." But the journal I found in the Houghton Library tells a different story.

Carefully pasted into the diary of 1879 are several newspaper clippings from "artists' letters" addressed to theBoston transcript, as well as five printed reviews of May's book,Study art abroad and how to do it cheaply, published by the same house, Roberts Brothers, that had publishedlittle woman. The book offered practical tips for traveling in Italy, France and England - including the names and prices of reputable hoteliers, recommendations on where to shop for discounted clothing and the names of art studio contacts. May referred to the book's audience as her "artistic sisters" who "wanted to study abroad but were unsure how to go about it." She cheerfully encouraged her readers—they could actually go abroad, they could do it cheaply, and they don't need an official chaperone to protect their female honor.

May offered her own life as a model and positioned herself as a secret sharer who could offer young female artists a professional network. She was, I would say, as adept at crafting an argument as she was at painting a picture. And many of the qualities we now admire in Amy — her ambition, her perspicacious appreciation of the injustices women face, her rhetorical power to maneuver through life and get what she wanted — also apply to Amy's real-life counterpart.

Armed with the trust of her parents and financial support from her sister, May was in an unusually secure position to pursue her artistic dreams. Before leaving Concord, she and Louisa had been working on a tourism bookConcord Skizzen(1869) showing the homes of Hawthorne, Emerson, Thoreau and their own family. She also illustrated the first edition oflittle woman. This work demonstrates that May was an established and successful local artist, and her family's inclusion in Concord's elite demonstrates the literary and cultural connections she enjoyed as an Alcott. She had studied in Boston with William Morris Hunt, an important painter, and opened her own artist studio. Because of her family's reputation and the way she had already used that reputation to find success in Concord and Boston, May had a built-in platform for her views. Unlike artists, who had no public status and might have had to fight for attention — let alone get a work placed in a leading newspaper — May had tools at hand and she used them. Above all, it was the profitslittle womanwhich enabled the real May Alcott to continue her artistic career.

In a 1878Boston transcriptColumn May wrote: "I yearn daily for an opportunity to tell many of the girls who are struggling in America to find the right kind of help how easy it is to cross the Atlantic without an escort but with one of the kind, courteous captains to cross the Cunard Line.” Her description of her ideal reader is similarArt studies abroad:

I suppose our particular artist is not a gay tourist touring Europe for guidebooks […] but a thoroughly serious worker, lady and poor like so many in the profession who wants to make the most of every opportunity, and the bag of gold as long as possible.

As an artist who has already been accepted into the Paris Salon and claims to be content with her life choices, May positions herself as the voice of experience and challenges readers to embrace their own lifestyle. She writes: "I am so free, so busy, so happy that I envy no one and find life infinitely rich and fulfilled. With that in mind [...] I think I could dare to say to any other young woman of modest means and artistic aspirations: 'Take heart, come and try art life in London.'”

The position that May took here has been controversial. Studying abroad - not as a "gay tourist" but as a "serious worker" - was considered a male adventure. Many art studios in the 1870s did not admit women. There were widespread concerns that painting nudes impinged on women's artistic virtues and that studying abroad might corrupt a woman's morals. Other cultural conservatives preferred that women study art only as a preliminary to household management rather than as a career. Faced with this resistance, some women artists tried to take the radical position that gender shouldn't matter at all.

For example, in 1873 the journalist Albert Rhodes visited a well-known studio in Paris, the Académie Julian, where two American women were working. How he reportedThe galaxyWhen he interviewed one of the artists, she told the magazine that an art student abroad had to "forget the conventions of society" to be successful:

[I] If a woman wants to be a painter, she must overcome her squeamishness; if she wants to paint strong and healthy like a man, she must go through the same training. […] There is no sex here; the students, men and women, are simply painters. In the studio, excessive modesty in a painter is a sign of mediocrity; only the woman who, in pursuit of art, forgets the conventions of society has a chance of an award.

Rhodes notes that "[t]here was something almost defiant in the young woman's remarks, as if she held a position that needed to be defended. What she said also suggested that she had broken many lances to assert herself on what was considered controversial ground.” Looking back at the interview, the woman wasobviouslytook a controversial position. Despite their claim that “there is no sex [i.e. Gender distinction] is,” Rodolphe Julian, founder of the Academy, eventually decided that it was inappropriate to mix the sexes in his own studio, thus separating men from women. Furthermore, large schools like the École des Beaux-Arts did not allow women to apply at all - and did not change this policy until 1897.

Writing from London just five years after interviewing the young artist, May takes it for granted that a woman need not check her respect for convention at the door when pursuing an art profession. In other words, her advocacy attempts to balance a passion for professionalism with distinguished femininity. Walking that fine line, she shows that in real life she was what Jane Smiley described the fictional Amy: a political actor adept at operating within oppressive systems to achieve her desired ends.

May's appearance on the site is unabashedly upbeat, both dreamy and soberly practical. She uses references to children's songs to convey the wonders of the art scene abroad, while also providing names and contact information (as well as prices) for art studios. She raves about how wonderful it is to shop for clothes in August, the off-season when "a young woman of modest means can get a neat and beautiful wardrobe for half what it costs at home." While she occasionally acknowledges the sexism women face abroad, she more often gushes about the wonderful opportunities unavailable in Boston. Guidebooks written for men at the same time openly acknowledge the many hardships of studying abroad: loneliness, the difficulty of the language barrier, unfamiliarity, and homesickness. May doesn't address these issues, which would only have been worse for most women in the 1870s.

In "A Letter from an Art Student in London," May lists the great galleries one by one, calling them "the crowning glory of all newcomers" and describing how accessible they are to students. At the National Gallery, for example, art students have "the right" to copy artworks two days a week "in camera" by submitting an "application to Mr. Norman." (The purpose of giving the name "Mr. Norman" is to provide her middle-class readers with a respectable, concrete connection. Elsewhere, May states, "Especially when a woman, a few notes, suggestions, and addresses will prove useful . ) May acts as a sort of professional coordinator, providing her readers with a respectable network to continue their studies.

Her enthusiastic discussion of these museum opportunities differs significantly from the description of the situation in The Art Student in Paris, a pamphlet published by the Boston Art Students Association in 1887. Writing for a predominantly male readership, the anonymous authors claim that for a student who has not taken the time to study art history, a visit to a gallery or museum can be exhausting: "Every time , when he visits the Louvre, he is called upon to exert himself mentally, for which he has neither time nor strength; and he will end up taking much of his artistic information second-hand.” The layouts of some major museums are described as “confusing” to someone “unfamiliar” with the major art schools. These kinds of warnings are rarely found in May's writing, which seems to assume that young women artists will be able to interpret the galleries' treasures without much study.

Why was she so positive? I think the same qualities that Smiley observed in Amy apply to May: "As she grows up, [Amy] realizes that a combination of charm, determination and self-awareness works." Manners, focused focuses on the positive and uses raw energy to break through potential barriers. May trusted her readers to do the same, leaving them no room for question or doubt. As Amy's speech to Laurie points out in the film, women cannot afford to admit weakness. They must use the skills at their disposal to navigate the world, especially when they are of modest means.

As the 19th century turned into the 20th, more women than ever were studying art abroad for a living. Citing census data, art historian Kirsten Swinth, in her 2001 volumePainters Professionals: Female Artists and the Development of Modern American Art. 1870–1930, notes that the number of women identifying as professional artists increased from 414 in 1870 to almost 11,000 in 1890. By the early 1900s, by the time both May and Louisa had died, women's networks in Paris were well established. Swinth writes: “Women's networks started at home. […] Advice, filtered through letters, contacts and friendships, pointed women to the best studios, reliable teachers and the most likely means of gaining a salon entry.” The period in which May wrote – 1876 to 1879 – was one formative time for professional women artists in the United States, and her vigorously optimistic rhetoric was necessary to balance the equally extreme opposing views that existed at the time. The world needed an "Amy," a confident, articulate feminist who could run through adversity with a knowing smile.

It may be tempting to dismiss these efforts as trivial for a variety of reasons. First, May would not have been able to travel to Europe without the financial support of her older sister, Louisa, at least initially. Given that fact, can we really say that she was independent? Also, it's perhaps a bit annoying that May is essentially advocating more privilege for women who were already quite privileged. In the face of slavery, child labor and mass poverty, does helping middle-class women study art abroad really count as significant feminist work? I would argue that it is, because ultimately, May is trying to give more women physical autonomy, financial freedom, career opportunity, and adventure.

In her writing, May appears as a staunch advocate of women's professional rights. She positions herself not only as a tourist guide for her readers, but as an artistic sister, mentor and friend. This actually sets her apart from her fictional counterpart. Inlittle woman, Amy admonishes Jo not to share the secrets of the good life on a budget: "You don't have to tell them all our little things and expose them to our poverty in this totally unnecessary way." In contrast, the real Amy - May was Alcott Nieriker – eager to share her tricks to enrich the lives of her readers. It's high time we recognized the true complexity of her character - as an aspiring artist, political actor and accomplished feminist.


Kelly Blewett teaches in the English Department at Indiana University East.


Why did Aunt March choose Amy? ›

After Beth catches scarlet fever, Aunt March is forced to take in young Amy, who needs to be quarantined. Amy and Aunt March hit it off pretty well; Amy admires Aunt March's jewelry and wealth, and Aunt March likes the fact that Amy has better manners than Jo.

How is Amy March described in the book? ›

The youngest March sister, Amy is an artistic beauty who is good at manipulating other people. Unlike Jo, Amy acts as a perfect lady because it pleases her and those around her. She gets what she wants in the end: popularity, the trip to Europe, and Laurie.

Do Laurie and Amy end up together in the book? ›

Amy becomes the family's golden child, heading to Europe to study art and eventually becoming wife to Laurie, Jo's best friend and the man everyone—the characters in the novel and readers poring over the text—thought Jo would marry.

What does Amy March represent? ›

While nurturing her artistic dreams, Amy strives to embody selfless virtues of generosity, maturity, and kindness.

How old is Beth when she dies? ›

Beth's dying had a strong impact on her sisters, especially Jo, who resolved to live her life with more consideration and care for others. Beth was twenty-three years old at the time of her death.

Who ends up with Amy March? ›

Later life. Amy became a dignified woman and is the only one who wants to marry a rich man so she would not have a hard time in terms of finance but at the last minute turns Fred Vaughn down, and marries Laurie instead. It is said she called him 'My Lord'.

What is Amy character analysis? ›

Amy is analytical, observant, and perceptive. She can dissect a person's personality in a methodical and unmerciful manner, pointing out all the defects but is disinclined to use these same analytical abilities on herself. She sees herself as a victim, deserving of whatever she wants.

What is the character analysis of the March sisters? ›

The four March sisters are enduring characters in children's literature. Meg, the oldest, beautiful and rather vain but sweet; Jo, the main focus of the books, a spirited tomboy; Beth, a sickly, gentle musician who dies in the first novel; and Amy, pampered and artistic.

Who is Amy March based on? ›

The real Amy March — May Alcott Nieriker, Louisa's youngest sister — was far from aloof and demanding. In fact, she was a real feminist force, fostering transatlantic networks for independent women travelers.

Was Amy always in love with Laurie? ›

Amy Loves Laurie

When all is said and done, Amy does love Laurie. She has loved him for a long time, and Laurie needs to be loved. If he'd have married Jo, she may have tried to convince herself that she loved him romantically, but Amy does it without trying.

Was Beth in love with Laurie? ›

Late in the novel, Jo comes to believe that Beth has a big secret. After some deduction—including finding Beth weeping in the night—Jo concludes that her sister is in love with Laurie.

What was the age gap between Amy and Laurie? ›

I know the age difference between Amy and Laurie is only three or four years, but their love and marriage would seem more normal to me if Laurie was ten years older yet they simply hadn't had much interaction when Amy was a kid.

Why did Amy burn Jo's novel? ›

Jo is a little bit sorry throughout the play; she cannot help thinking of Amy and regretting how cross she was with her. The next day Jo discovers how sorry Amy decided to make: she burnt Jo's long-cherished manuscript, the work of years, in revenge for the perceived slight against her.

How did Laurie fall in love with Amy? ›

Laurie also begins to correspond with Amy frequently. When Fred Vaughn finally proposes, Amy turns him down because she does not want to marry for money. Amy and Laurie find out about Beth's death at nearly the same time, and Laurie goes to comfort Amy. They begin to spend much time together and fall in love.

What does Amy March say about marriage? ›

Even if I had my own money, which I don't, it would belong to my husband the minute we were married. If we had children they would belong to him, not me. They would be his property. So don't sit there and tell me that marriage isn't an economic proposition, because it is.

What is Beth dying of? ›

Scarlet fever can permanently damage the heart. Beth never fully recovers her strength after the disease and dies as a result.

What illness does Beth have? ›

But the only diagnosis that author Louisa May Alcott gives us is the medical history: the case of scarlet fever that Beth contracts in the course of her faithful care of a family of poor German immigrants whom she and her sisters have taken on as objects of charity. Beth gets very sick indeed.

Does Jo March marry in the book? ›

In Alcott's book, Jo March spends much of the pages talking about how she never wants to marry or have children. At the end of the story, however, Jo eventually marries her boarding housemate Professor Bhaer and has children.

Who is the prettiest March sister? ›

Meg, short for Margaret, is the oldest and (until Amy grows up) the prettiest of the four March sisters. She's also the most typical of the sisters – we think of her as everything that you might expect a nineteenth-century American girl from a good family to be.

Do Amy and Laurie have a baby? ›

A year goes by without much success; later Aunt March dies and leaves her large estate Plumfield to Jo. Jo and Bhaer marry and turn the house into a school for boys. They have two sons of their own, and Amy and Laurie have a daughter.

Who is the least favorite March sister? ›

Amy March, the youngest of the “Little Women,” has historically been the least liked of the four. Louisa May Alcott's 1868 coming-of-age novel positions her as a foil to her older sister Jo, the author's semi-autobiographical stand-in, and by contrast emphasizes Amy's youthful selfishness and materialism.

What personality type is Amy? ›

Amy Winehouse Personality Type
Amy Winehouse Myers-Briggs MBTI PersonalityISFP
Amy Winehouse Enneagram TypeEnneagram Type 4
Amy Winehouse Matching Personality TypeESFJ
OccupationSinger and songwriter
8 more rows
Jan 31, 2023

What kind of creature is Amy? ›

Sonic CD introduced Amy Rose, a female hedgehog with a persistent crush on Sonic. Sonic 3 introduced Knuckles the Echidna, Sonic's rival and later, friend.

Why Amy is the best March sister? ›

She used every tool in her arsenal, her good manners and charm, her youthfulness, her artistic creativity and, of course, the fact that she was very beautiful, to her advantage. By the end of Little Women, she has realised her every dream and she's blissfully happy.

What lesson can we learned in the life of the March sisters? ›

The Wisdom of Kindness

Throughout the story there is an overarching theme seen time after time. It's Kindness. Whenever the March sisters encounter negative circumstances or behave less than should be expected, they eventually default to kindness.

What kind of person was Mrs March? ›

Mrs. March is essentially the perfect mother: she works hard but is never too busy to console and counsel her daughters; she cheerfully does charitable work and helps out with the war effort; she's an ideal housekeeper, a loving mother, and a highly principled woman.

Who is Aunt March based on? ›

Who inspired Aunt March? Lis Adams, Educational Director of Orchard House, believes Aunt March may have been based upon Louisa's great Aunt Scott (born Dorothy Quincy) who died before Louisa was born, but whose legend loomed large in the family.

Why is Jo so mean to Amy? ›

Jo and Amy develop a harsh rivalry that drives the plot of “Little Women.” They are alike in their passion but hold different values: Jo, the writer, would willingly cut off her long hair, her “only beauty,” to help provide for her family without much concern for vanity, while Amy, the artist, shamelessly celebrates ...

Is Beth older than Amy? ›

Beth, who is 13, has severe social anxiety and is home-schooled, while 12-year-old Amy attends a school of modern mean-girlness. The family employs a cook who does all kinds of household work, but the Marches share the chores.

What do the March girls call their mother? ›

Everyone who has ever read Louisa May Alcott's “Little Women” remembers that the March girls called their mother “Marmee,” an oddly memorable name because of that hard “r” in the middle.

Did Amy reject Laurie? ›

In one of her letters, Amy tells Laurie that Fred has gone to Egypt. Laurie understands that this means Amy has refused his proposal of marriage. One day, the news arrives that Beth has died. It's too late for Amy to do anything about it or to come home for the funeral, so her family tells her to stay in Europe.

What is the age difference between Meg and John? ›

At the start of the story, Meg is 16 years old. At age 21 she marries John Brooke and one year later gives birth to twins. Emma Watson is 29.

What is the age difference between Jo March and Friedrich Bhaer? ›

That means the age gap between him and Jo is smaller, only about 10 or so years, versus the 20-plus-year gap in previous versions.

Did Beth love her adoptive mother? ›

On the one hand, it is clear Beth loves her adoptive mother, but on the other, she does not relate to her at all. There are glimmers of genuine love from her adoptive mother as well, but there are also clear indicators of narcissism and exploitation of Beth's gift for chess.

Did Jo want to marry Laurie? ›

It is therefore extremely significant that Jo rejects Laurie despite the fact that he is handsome, kind, loving, and rich, and that she rejects him for no other reason than that she does not love him as she wants to love a husband.

Do Jo and Laurie kiss in the book? ›

Laurie, unsure of what to do, kisses her bashfully as she holds him. Jo snaps to attention after she's been kissed.

Why did Amy call Laurie mean? ›

Amy starts her lecture by telling Laurie that she and her cousin Flo call him "Lazy Laurence." She says that she despises him, because he's rich and has every opportunity of being happy and useful, but instead he's just wasting his time and money being miserable.

Does Laurie marry Jo or Amy? ›

And the character readers expect Jo to end up with, her charming best friend Laurie, marries Jo's least favorite sister Amy instead. And so, while generations of readers have loved Little Women and sighed over Little Women, they have also puzzled over that bizarre, unsatisfying ending.

Did Laurie confess to Jo in the book? ›

Sure enough, Laurie comes over, confesses, and apologizes. Meg and Jo tell him never to reveal the story to anyone. Laurie leaves, and Jo decides to let him know that she is not angry with him.

What was Jo's secret? ›

Laurie tells Jo that he has a secret, and that he'll tell her his secret if she tells him his. After some coaxing, Jo reveals that she's submitted two stories to the local newspaper.

What does Amy do for which Jo swears she will never forgive her? ›

What does Amy do that Jo swears she will never forgive her? She burns Jo's manuscript. What does Meg do for money before she is married? She works as a governess.

Why didn t Jo end up with Laurie? ›

In the books, Jo never likes Laurie romantically and his romantic interest only makes Jo feel uncomfortable. Not only does their dynamics change because Jo doesn´t want to fit into the traditional female role of the time but because Laurie fits into the traditional 19th-century male role almost too well.

What did Aunt March leave Amy? ›

Amy asks Esther who will get Aunt March's jewelry when she dies. Esther says that, in her will, Aunt March has left the jewelry to Amy and her sisters.

What is the age difference between Amy and Laurie? ›

I know the age difference between Amy and Laurie is only three or four years, but their love and marriage would seem more normal to me if Laurie was ten years older yet they simply hadn't had much interaction when Amy was a kid.

Who was the prettiest March sister? ›

Meg, short for Margaret, is the oldest and (until Amy grows up) the prettiest of the four March sisters. She's also the most typical of the sisters – we think of her as everything that you might expect a nineteenth-century American girl from a good family to be.

Who is the most loved march sister? ›

Shy, sensitive Beth is the most beloved. And spoiled, vain Amy is her nemesis. She commits the most heinous act of the book when, in a fit of anger at her older sister, she burns one of Jo's manuscripts.

What is the age difference between the March sisters? ›

Her 16-year-old daughter Meg is a governess to a wealthy family and her 15-year-old sister Jo is a companion for a rich old relative. Beth, who is 13, has severe social anxiety and is home-schooled, while 12-year-old Amy attends a school of modern mean-girlness.

Who was Jo's favorite sister? ›

Jo's story dominates Little Women. But each of her sisters play a crucial role in the narrative. Meg, the oldest, is Jo's confidante. Shy, sensitive Beth is the most beloved.

What chapter does Amy burn Jo's book? ›

Summary: Chapter 8: Jo Meets Apollyon

Angered, Amy tells Jo that Jo will be sorry. During the play, Jo feels some remorse for her bad treatment of her little sister. When the older girls arrive home, Amy gives Jo the cold shoulder. The next day, Jo finds her manuscript missing, and discovers that Amy has burned it.

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